The resources presented in this guide have been divided between Academic (i.e., scholarly publications) and "On the Web" -- newsletters, university web sites and resource guides. All Academic sources listed are available either through Drexel University Libraries' collections, or open access publications. While these have been divided roughly by academic disciplines, many of the ideas, issues and initiatives discussed would be relevant across disciplines.
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This extensive Handbook will bring together different aspects of critical pedagogy with the aim of opening up a clear international conversation on the subject, as well as pushing the boundaries of current understanding by extending the notion of a pedagogy to multiple pedagogies and perspectives. Bringing together a group of contributing authors from around the globe, the chapters will provide a unique approach and insight to the discipline by crossing a range of disciplines and articulating both philosophical and social common themes. The chapters will be organised across three volumes and twelve core thematic sections. The SAGE Handbook of Critical Pedagogies is planned to be an essential benchmark publication for advanced students, researchers and practitioners across a wide range of disciplines including education, health, sociology, anthropology and development studies.
The Race & Pedagogy Journal provides a forum to cultivate a critical discussion around the issues of teaching and race to mitigate the effects of discrimination and structural racism, and thereby, improve education for all students.
The authors discuss the ways in which neoliberal multiculturalism influences the reception and implementation of antiracist initiatives on college campuses. They suggest the intersections of neoliberalism and racism produce a resistance to antiracist efforts and desire for softened multicultural approaches that maintain the status quo. Since the logics of White supremacy and capitalism dominate every space of our society, critical multiculturalism must address these oppressive systems in antiracism education.
First published in Portuguese in 1968, Pedagogy of the Oppressed was translated and published in English in 1970. The methodology of the late Paulo Freire has helped to empower countless impoverished and illiterate people throughout the world. Freire's work has taken on especial urgency in the United States and Western Europe, where the creation of a permanent underclass among the underprivileged and minorities in cities and urban centers is increasingly accepted as the norm. With a substantive new introduction on Freire's life and the remarkable impact of this book by writer and Freire confidant and authority Donaldo Macedo, this anniversary edition of Pedagogy of the Oppressed will inspire a new generation of educators, students, and general readers for years to come.
Grayman-Simpson, N., et al. (2019). "Critical Whiteness Education and Cognitive Frame of Reference Elaboration: An In-Depth Descriptive Case of Transformation." Journal of Transformative Education 17(3): 269-286.
Critical race courses challenge today's college students to cognitively grapple with issues of justice and the good society. In some instances, these challenges lead to positive, relational growth-fostering attitudes and behaviors. Transformative learning educator Jack Mezirow's approach to facilitating cognitive shifts appears especially promising in its ability to promote such outcomes. In our own work, we apply this frame to guide our teaching, with an aim toward fostering and studying racially privileged (i.e., White) students' cognitive shifts around the meaning of whiteness. The present case study is an in-depth description of one student's whiteness frame of reference elaboration. Several tentative contributions to Mezirow's theory emerge as a result. Namely, whiteness frame of reference elaboration may include (1) periods of cognitive homeostasis in addition to disruption, (2) positive affective experiencing in addition to negative affect, and (3) shifts in cognition that are subjectively encoded within the context of affective experiencing.
In this conceptual paper, Diane Gusa highlights the salience of race by scrutinizing the culture of Whiteness within predominately White institutions of higher education. Using existing research in higher education retention literature, Gusa examines embedded White cultural ideology in the cultural practices, traditions, and perceptions of knowledge that are taken for granted as the norm at institutions of higher education. Drawing on marginalization and discrimination experiences of African American undergraduates to illustrate the performance of White mainstream ideology, Gusa names this embedded ideology White institutional presence (WIP) and assigns it four attributes: White ascendancy, monoculturalism, White estrangement, and White blindness.
This article addresses Black women graduate students' educational labor in higher education teacher training programs. We ground this reflective account of our respective teaching praxis in the educational betrayal we endured as younger students, connecting it to our engagement of Black feminist pedagogy. We illustrate how this praxis empowered us as undergraduate educators to implement pedagogies of equity and justice. Employing a structured vignette analysis framework, we draw on a Black feminist paradigm and Black feminist autoethnography to examine field notes of our teaching praxis. These two field notes, one from Francena and one from ArCasia, demonstrate challenges that emerged in our instruction of mostly white undergraduates. Despite the precarious nature of our political and professional positions, we discuss why working toward an anti-oppression praxis remains our ultimate pedagogical aim.
The academy can provide rich opportunities for the scholar activist through critical discourse within the classroom, consciousness building via community engagement, and leveraging diverse connections. However, the academy often upholds systemic roadblocks, at times enacting policies that further perpetuate inequities. This qualitative study takes a narrative approach to exploring the life course histories of 15 activists occupying diverse yet intersecting dimensions in the spectrum of privilege and oppression. Interviewees are uniquely connected to the academy engaging in a variety of roles and anti-racist social justice efforts within the northwestern United States. Applying a critical consciousness framework, results highlight key functions of critical reflection and critical action as interviewees engage in critical consciousness raising (i.e., systemic root cause analysis), social justice identity formation (i.e., the politicization of one's identity), and adapting individual theories of social change. Barriers within the institution are also identified concerning the mainstreaming of service learning and university-required diversity courses, limited structural supports for activists of color, and the institutionalized co-opting of social change efforts. Lastly, implications for activism, scholarship, and critical pedagogy within the academy are discussed.
This article reviews two decades of work carried out at the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, University of Leeds in the area of racism and higher education. It introduces key issues and themes in this field and also identifies a seven-point agenda for action. This article provides an overview and agenda-setting account of the theoretical and policy innovations developed by this research team, which provide a contextual background for this volume as a whole. Historical recognition of the role of universities as key sites for the production of racialised knowledge across a range of intellectual fields is an essential starting point. We urge promotion of fundamental de-racialisation and de-colonisation of the academy. This cannot be achieved by self-regulation by the sector or by the setting of minimum legal requirements, it requires strong political, institutional and intellectual leadership, alliance-building and mobilisation.
Background: White students are both curious and sometimes apprehensive about engaging in dialogues about race. Purpose: We investigate white university students' experience of comfort and conflict in racial interaction in inter- and intragroup dialogues. Methodology/Approach: We analyzed student papers written at the beginning and end of the dialogue as well as their post-semester interviews, for their hopes/fears, classroom racial experiences, and learnings. Findings/Conclusions: White students in two types of semester-long dialogue courses reported issues of relative comfort and conflict as they explored their own and others' racial histories and outlooks. They reported feeling safer in the white-only (intragroup) dialogues, as they learned about white culture and privilege; they also lamented not having racialized "others" to learn from. White students in the interracial (intergroup) dialogues often reported more discomfort, risk, and tension, as they learned about the impact of white culture and privilege on students of color, as well as about racism as a white problem.Implications: We draw implications for educational practice that include dissonance and conflict as stimuli for student learning and the use of experienced-based pedagogical techniques that encourage student sharing, critical reflection on narratives and encounters, and mutual participation.
This essay decenters whiteness and centers who I am as a Black teacher weighed down by boulders representing the dominance of whiteness and internalized racism as well as the institutional and social systems within which I dwell. Slowly, I release them through partnerships, "remembered" histories, "re-righted" curriculum, and confidence in self-worth. While I write about degradation, marginalization, disrespect, and omission of my Blackness in relationships with universities, I also write about supportive partnerships with Professional Dyads of Culturally Relevant Teaching (PDCRT) Colleagues of Color, administrators, and students emphasizing that, at the end of the day, the partner I must hold onto first is me.
While a number of scholars in the field of Christian theology have argued for the importance of teaching diversity and social justice in theology and religious studies classrooms, little has been done to document and assess formally the implementation of such pedagogy. In this article, the authors discuss the findings of a yearlong Scholarship of Multicultural Teaching and Learning (SoMTL) study, which examined student learning and faculty teaching regarding race and white privilege in two theology classrooms. After a brief overview of the study's design and execution, we reflect upon our findings and draw out implications for pedagogical practices. In particular we discuss students' emotional responses to the material and the role of cognitive dissonance in student learning with respect to racial inequality via social structures.
This article maintains that knowledge of the literature on multicultural education and social justice pedagogy is indispensable for white college professors who desire to teach effectively about racial justice concerns. In exploring this literature, I have noticed that many publications either articulate theory or reflect on concrete classroom strategies, while relatively few deploy theory to evaluate specific attempts at teaching for justice. This seems to me a gap worth filling. Speaking as a white, conventionally trained, Catholic theologian, I begin by explaining why I deem it appropriate to employ antiracist pedagogy. I then demonstrate that the literature on multicultural education and social justice pedagogy is essential to this effort by utilizing both types of literature, theoretical and practical, to analyze my own strategies and goals to date. Throughout, I discuss white antiracist theological pedagogy not as an accomplished fact, but as an emerging endeavor.
The study of human variation is central to both social and biomedical sciences, but social and biomedical scientists diverge in how variation is theorized and operationalized. Race is especially problematic because it is a cultural concept that contains implicit and explicit understandings of how collective bodies differ. In this article, we propose an operationalization of race that addresses both racial experience and human biological diversity, placing them within the same ontological sphere. Furthermore, this approach can more effectively advance antiracist pedagogy and politics. We argue that human biological diversity does not have to be in opposition to constructivist notions of race. Rather, racial experience is emphasized as an embodied experience that is as real and as valid as biological variation. By focusing on both racial experience and biological diversity, it becomes more feasible to operationalize race to fruitfully inform the pedagogy and politics of antiracism. To do so, racial experience must be more broadly conceived and should not always equate to negative outcomes. With the recognition that racial experience has the potential to be something other than damaging, an antiracist anthropology can more effectively address issues pertaining to racial health disparities.
Drawing from multiple courses, the authors explore the intersections and connections concerning the various ways students in mainstream programmes experience and express counter-resistances to decolonizing and anti-oppressive pedagogies. The authors focus on how aspects of curriculum can at once minimize, trigger and/or provoke various aspects of resistances. They also consider how the positionality of the instructor and purposeful and mindful choices in curriculum, course content and classroom practices assist students to reflect on their own positionality and the ways networks and relations of power and privilege are implicated in learning and teaching. From the perspectives of one Indigenous and one non-Indigenous instructor, the authors share practical examples related to decolonizing and anti-oppressive pedagogies within higher education contexts.
This workshop brings together folks currently or interested in becoming academic accomplices, or scholars committed to leveraging resources and power to support the justice work of their community collaborators. Academic accomplices are necessary for research justice research that materially challenges inequity and owe it to community partners to challenge underlying oppressive structure and practices as perpetuated through academic research. The goal of this workshop is to discuss concrete strategies for challenging oppression through research methodologies, physical or institutional resources, and/or pedagogy. This workshop will generate practical strategies for research justice for DIS and HCI scholars.
In this article, we draw from two independent, completed projects that forced us to struggle with our ethics and how we understood the nature of the researcher-participant relationship. We move past the presumption that we social justice-minded qualitative researchers are "needed" to discuss how we understand ourselves to be meeting that need. Here, our intent is to trouble qualitative researchers' underlying assumptions about help and harm when we are working against oppression and inequity and/or toward justice and equity, both for our subjects/participants and for society.
Lykes, M. B., et al. (2018). "Participatory and Action Research Within and Beyond the Academy: Contesting Racism through Decolonial Praxis and Teaching "Against the Grain"." American Journal of Community Psychology 62(3-4): 406-418.
This article focuses on some of the epistemological and activist challenges at the center of a participatory and action research teaching-learning process developed through a student-initiated graduate seminar at Boston College, a university in the global North. The course includes participation of students and instructors in a 2.5-day Undoing Racism workshop facilitated by the People's Institute for Survival and Beyond (PISAB), a New Orleans based non-profit. Authors, who include a university-based co-instructor and student and a Collaborative Community Fellow, describe the decolonial, antiracist pedagogy performed in a coteaching-colearning process "against the grain." We report participants' feedback on how this teaching-learning experience facilitated their understanding of critical reflexivity and its multiple contributions towards designing PAR processes with communities that elicit and value local knowledge toward collaborative activism. We summarize our experiences and challenges in developing decolonial pedagogy within a predominantly White, elite university, and how the course generates a space through which those who have walked this walk together are able to initiate diverse processes that facilitate community-collaborative knowledge generation and actions toward redressing injustice and inequity through undoing racism.
In this autoethnography, I reflect on troubling fieldwork dilemmas I experienced while conducting qualitative research in a high school English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Here, I trouble-interrogate and raise questions about-two events involving JanCarlos, a student from Honduras. Using dialogue and reflexive internal dialogue, I present how the events were critical for him in that they altered the trajectory of his school experience and represented "critical incidents" in my research as they provoked emotional responses, interrupted my objective stance, and altered my interpretations. As I watched events unfold, I routinely asked the relational ethical question-"What should I do now?" In so doing, I critically reflect on fieldwork dilemmas and make transparent my position/power in creating knowledge.
This article considers the institutionalization of research ethics as a site of "colonial unknowing" in which the racial colonial entanglements of academic research and institutions are obscured. I examine the origin stories situating Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) as a response to cases of exceptional violence, most notably the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, within an otherwise neutral history of research. I then consider how the 2018 revisions to the Common Rule extend "colonial unknowing" by decontextualizing the forms of risk involved in social and behavioral research. I situate these complicities as necessary starting points toward anticolonial research ethics of "answerability."
A considerable amount of research across the past several decades has documented the emergence of a new racial ideology of "color-blindness" as well as evidence that white college students have difficulty recognizing the racial privileges that are obscured by this color-blindness. To address this, we developed a cooperative group White Privilege Activity that used racial and class differences in infant mortality to help students recognize the existence of white privilege. Fielding this in two mass lecture sections of Introductory Sociology, we found that exposure to content on white privilege along with the utilization of cooperative learning group exercises promoted a greater understanding of white privilege for both white and nonwhite students. Furthermore, we found that the racial composition of cooperative learning groups had a significant impact on white students' racial privilege attitudes.
Decolonizing the curriculum involves more than broadening the canon and revising reading lists. In challenging Eurocentric frameworks and making definitions of "fashion" more inclusive, methods and approaches to teaching itself also require active reconceptualization in a closer questioning of the meaning of decolonized practice. This paper analyses experimental teaching within the MA History of Design program at the Royal College of Art, London, which aimed to explore decolonial praxis while training postgraduates to critique fashion historiography. The ambition was also to broaden students' perspectives toward deeper reflexivity and wider professional development. We argue that the dismantling of Eurocentric bias and critiquing of institutional systems involves an uncomfortable unpicking of accustomed structures of knowledge that is both the ground zero and the end goal of decolonial histories. In modeling more collaborative modes of teaching, learning and writing, we suggest what a decolonized practice could look like for fashion studies, and the importance of emotion and position within a transformational potential.
Background: Women and students of color are widely underrepresented in most STEM fields. In order to investigate this underrepresentation, we interviewed 201 college seniors, primarily women and people of color, who either majored in STEM or started but dropped a STEM major. Here we discuss one section of the longer interview that focused on students' sense of belonging, which has been found to be related to retention. In our analysis, we examine the intersections of race and gender with students' sense of belonging, a topic largely absent from the current literature. Results: We found that white men were most likely to report a sense of belonging whereas women of color were the least likely. Further, we found that representation within one's STEM sub-discipline, namely biology versus the physical sciences, impacts sense of belonging for women. Four key factors were found to contribute to sense of belonging for all students interviewed: interpersonal relationships, perceived competence, personal interest, and science identity. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that students who remain in STEM majors report a greater sense of belonging than those who leave STEM. Additionally, we found that students from underrepresented groups are less likely to feel they belong. These findings highlight structural and cultural features of universities, as well as STEM curricula and pedagogy, that continue to privilege white males.
Canada's 2015 Truth and Reconciliation Commission published 94 Calls to Action including direction to post-secondary institutions "to integrate Indigenous knowledge and teaching methods into classrooms" as well as to "build student capacity for intercultural understanding, empathy, and mutual respect." In response, Canadian universities have rushed to "Indigenize" and are now competing to hire Indigenous faculty, from a limited pool of applicants. However, it is missing the true spirit of reconciliation for non-Indigenous faculty to continue with the status quo while assigning the sole responsibility of Indigenizing curriculum to these new hires. How can non-Indigenous psychology professors change their teaching to ensure that all students acquire an appreciation of traditional Indigenous knowledge about holistic health and healing practices, as well as an understanding of Canada's history of racist colonization practices and its intergenerational effects? Community psychologists, particularly those who have established relationships with Indigenous communities, have an important role to play. In this article, I survey the existing literature on Indigenizing and decolonizing psychological curriculum and share ways in which I have integrated Indigenous content into my psychology courses. I also reflect upon the successes, questions, and ongoing challenges that have emerged as I worked in collaboration with first Anisinaabek First Nations and then Mi'kmaw/L'nu First Nations.
Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation, and is exacerbated by an unwillingness to reflect on privilege and inequality. Drawing on Biko and Soudien’s critique of multiculturalism and vision for anti-racist education, this paper describes a classroom activity set for 164 nationally and culturally diverse second year sociology students at a university in Cape Town, South Africa. The activity tasked students to reflect on texts by Peggy McIntosh and Khaya Dlanga (one canonical, the other contextual) and reports on these students’ nuanced understandings of personal biography, experiences of privilege and self-reflexivity that connects personal experience to social structure and historical contexts. It concludes by offering modest implications for moral education in a multicultural university classroom.
This study examined student teachers’ and teacher educators’ discourses about multiculturalism in an international English-medium teacher education programme in Finland. An analysis with discursive pragmatics of semi-structured interviews revealed four positioning strategies for initial responses to multiculturalism: stereotyping and othering, distancing oneself, verbalizing experiences and downplaying multiculturalism. Although the same strategies were present to a large extent among both student teachers and teacher educators, these have different implications. The teacher educators’ lack of a shared critical understanding of interculturality created uncertainty when considering multicultural issues and can lead to a situation where the coherence between the objectives, implementation methods and assessment in the program suffers. The student teachers had difficulties transferring their immediate experiences of multiculturalism into reflections of how these may contribute to their future work as teachers. Student teachers seemed dependent on teacher educators’ support in recognizing challenges with diversities as learning opportunities. Teacher educators should be provided with opportunities to compare and contest their conceptions of interculturality so that they would be able to guide student teachers in reflecting on theirs.
This paper grapples with the idea that challenging racism in teacher education opens the landscape of racial melancholia by psychoanalytically exploring the author's affective reaction to white teacher candidates' resistance. Drawing on critical multicultural education classes at a university in a mid-Western rural state in the US, the author, an Asian American teacher educator contends that she must negotiate the loss of idealised objects during critical race dialogues for her to better serve containing function in supporting teacher candidates' encounters with race work. While the author cannot see what it is that has been lost, the powerful emotions that at times display aggressive impulses signal toward wounded subjectivity and her desire to hold onto intrinsically ambivalent lost objects. Following Freud's assertion that the unconscious desire can be mediated only through efforts to symbolise and Bion's assertion that the containing mind involves active process, the author attempts to investigate what racial melancholia may represent for herself as a teacher educator. In the final section, the author interprets the manifestations of racial melancholia as an effect of racialised society and concludes that while the conscious meaning cannot exceed the unconscious, by working through the state of racial melancholia, she is able to create new meanings for her affective responses and make better sense of teacher candidates' resistance and their anxiety.
The students' remarks, or in other words the discourse we offer as examples, are commonly heard in the social, political, and professional communities of which students are a part. The students' remarks are samples of unexamined "commonsense" notions to which students have access and can take for granted in the repertoire of social commentary. As Goldberg (1990) states, "In a field of discourse like racism, what is generally circulated and exchanged is not simply truth but truth claims or representations. These representations draw their efficacy from traditions, conventions, institutions, and tacit modes of mutual comprehension" (p. 298) that assume commonsense status. To help them past these "commonsense" stopping points, students are invited to examine the ideological assumptions on which these statements are based and on which inequality is justified. We tell our students that race matters because without acknowledging that it does, we ignore how racialized identities are always operating to create difference: denial that one has a racial identity trivializes and makes invisible the effects of power (Roman, 1993). By claiming that "we're all part of the same human race" and that the "color of a person's skin" is invisible, students whitewash the daily advantage of white privilege (Henriques et al., 1984; MacIntosh, 1998; Sleeter, 1993). By denying that race matters, whiteness as in the dominant racial identification can be considered the invisible norm against which others are judged as "not white/not quite" (Bhabha, 1994, p. 92). As a consequence of this denial, Larocque (1991) discusses how racism is constructed as a problem of mutual dislike. The statements identified in this article are examples of common discourses that reflect ideological assumptions. For example, when students say "We just need to get along," they deny the power of racial identity to confer privilege. They do not acknowledge that people are differently positioned in hierarchical structures that depend on social and political difference. Unmarked dominance remains invisible, and inequality is explained as a product of cultural difference The idea that opportunity is equally open to all, and that students can do anything they want as long as they are "prepared to make sacrifices," ignores and trivializes the significance of unearned privileges conferred by their own dominant group identity. This "commonsense" notion implies that success follows from one's individual effort and, by employing blaming-the-victim logic, suggests that discrimination and disadvantage are one's own fault. Students are often unaware of, or choose to forget, how disadvantage has been constructed historically. That they continue to benefit from historical practices of discrimination allows claims of innocence. That is why they can say with impunity, "Why do they always bring up the past? I wasn't there."
Introduction: Microaggressions are connected to broader conceptualizations of the impact of implicit bias and systems of inequity. The body of evidence supporting the need for more-open discussions in medical education about race, racism, and their impact on health disparities continues to grow. Some have advocated for the importance of bringing anti-racist pedagogy into medical education curricula, which involves explicitly attempting to move beyond people's comfort zones and acknowledging that discomfort can be a catalyst for growth. To discuss the intent and impact of microaggressions in health care settings and how we might go about responding to them, we developed a workshop for third-year undergraduate medical students within a longitudinal undergraduate medical education diversity and inclusion curriculum. Methods: This workshop occurred during a regularly scheduled clerkship intersession during the 2016-2017 academic year for third-year undergraduate medical students (N = 154). Prior to the workshop, the students were asked to anonymously submit critical incident reports on any microaggressions experienced or witnessed to develop case studies for problem-based learning. Teaching modalities included lecture, problem-based learning with case studies, pair and share, and facilitated small- and large-group debriefs. Results: The session was evaluated using a 4-point Likert scale to assess students' comfort in learning about the information presented. Ninety-eight percent felt confident in identifying microaggressions, and 85% felt confident in interrupting microaggressions when they occur. Discussion: This personalized workshop exposes students to microaggressions personally experienced by colleagues with an attempt to interrupt them using empathy, awareness, and communication techniques.
A wave of medical student activism is shining a spotlight on medical educators' sometimes maladroit handling of racial categories in teaching about health disparities. Coinciding with recent critiques, primarily by social scientists, regarding the imprecise and inappropriate use of race as a biological or epidemiological risk factor in genetics research, medical student activism has triggered new collaborations among students, faculty, and administrators to rethink how race is addressed in the medical curriculum. Intensifying critiques of racial essentialism are a crucial concern for educators since bioscientific knowledge grounds the authority of health professionals. Central ethical issues-racial bias and social justice-cannot be properly addressed without confronting the epistemological problem of racial essentialism in bioscience teaching. Thus, educators now face an ethical imperative to improve academic capacities for robust interdisciplinary teaching about the conceptual apparatus of race and the recalibration of its use in teaching both genetics and the more pervasive and urgent social causes of health inequalities.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In order to address racial health inequity, it is imperative to create diverse physician workforce and leadership. We describe and report on the outcomes of a comprehensive diversity initiative at our residency with the goal of increasing the racial diversity of residents and faculty. METHODS: At a community-based family medicine residency program, we instituted a multifaceted diversity initiative. The four components were mission statement revision, a diversity task force, an antiracism curriculum, and an ongoing system to evaluate progress. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2017, the proportion of persons of color among the residents increased from 28% (10/36) to 68% (27/40). Faculty diversity increased from 9% to 27% over the same period. CONCLUSIONS: This multimethod diversity initiative dramatically increased the proportion of underrepresented and other minorities in the residency program. The intervention succeeded due to the commitment of leadership and resources to addressing racism and making diversity a top priority on an institutional level.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In its landmark report, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, the Institute of Medicine concluded that unconscious or implicit negative racial attitudes and stereotypes contribute to poorer health outcomes for patients of color. We describe and report on the outcome of teaching a workshop on the tool of racial affinity caucusing to address these issues. METHODS: Applying the framework described by Crossroads Antiracism Organizing and Training, we developed a 90-minute workshop teaching racial affinity caucusing to family medicine educators interested in racial health disparities. The workshop included didactic and experiential components as well as a panel discussion. We administered pre- and posttests. RESULTS: Participants' (n=53) impression of and confidence in implementing racial affinity caucusing significantly increased following the workshop from a mean pretest score of 5.40 to a mean posttest score of 7.12 (P<.01) on a scale of 1 to 9. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that the workshop made them more likely to think about implementing this tool at their home institutions (P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the first exploration in medical education of racial affinity caucusing and illustrated that it can be easily implemented in residency programs as an effort to address racial health inequities. Though the participating educators were mostly unfamiliar with it, the workshop was an effective introduction to this tool and by the end, educators reported increased comfort and enthusiasm for racial affinity caucusing, regardless of their preexisting levels of knowledge of or comfort with the tool. In addition, the overwhelming majority of the participants felt they could implement it at their respective institutions.
Biomedical research has a long and complicated history as a tool of oppression, exemplary of the racial science used to legitimise and maintain racial hierarchies in the USA and abroad. While the explicit racism and racial inferiority supported by this research has dissipated and modern methods of inquiry have increased in sophistication and rigor, contemporary biomedical research continues to essentialise race by distilling racial differences and disparities in health to an underlying, biogenetic source. Focusing on the persistence of essentialism in an era of genomic medicine, this paper examines the deep social origins and social implications of the essentialist viewpoint in biomedicine and how it relates to the broader construction of social and scientific knowledge. Invoking Hacking's 'looping effects' as a useful conceptual tool, I then demonstrate how sociohistorical forces influence scientific and medical research in producing evidence that favours and legitimises a biological construction of race. I extend the looping framework to consider a parallel 'louping' process whereby applying a socially rooted meaning to race in biomedical research results becomes magnified to influence social norms and ideas about race. As many biomedical researchers are motivated by a desire to eliminate racial disparities in outcomes, I argue that greater social acuity allows scientists to avoid individualising and racialising health, challenge preconceived assumptions about the meaning of racial variation in health and medicine and thus promote and strengthen a socioenvironmental focus on how to best improve individuals' and population health. Concluding with a call for structural competency in biomedical research, I suggest that empowering scientists to more freely discuss sociostructural factors in their work allows for the continued use of race in biological and medical research, while social scientists and medical humanities scholars stand to benefit from seeing their work imbued with the cultural authority currently granted to biomedicine.
Harrison-Bernard, L. M., et al. (2020). "Knowledge gains in a professional development workshop on diversity, equity, inclusion, and implicit bias in academia." Advances in Physiology Education 44(3): 286-294.
As literature indicates, historic racism and implicit bias throughout academia have been profound metrics leading to a lack of diversity, as related to people from underrepresented groups according to race and ethnicity, among biomedical sciences graduate students in U.S. universities. Recognizing such challenges, a team of biomedical scientists and inclusivity educators developed and implemented a pilot training program within an academic health sciences center as an initial step to educate faculty and staff regarding their roles in the promotion of an inclusive academic environment, receptive to all students, including underrepresented students. The 3-h workshop included didactic modules, videos, teaching modules, and active attendee participation. Faculty and staff were presented common terminology and ways to promote the development of an inclusive and diverse academic workforce. Compared with pre-workshop, post-workshop survey results indicated a statistically significant improvement in attendee knowledge of correctly identifying definitions of "implicit bias," "status leveling," "color-blind racial attitudes," "tokenism," and "failure to differentiate." Additionally, by the end of the workshop, participants had a statistically significant increase in self-perceptions regarding the importance of improving diversity and recognizing biases and stereotypes in graduate education, knowing what to say when interacting with people from different cultures, and the ability to acknowledge bias when mentoring students from groups underrepresented in the biomedical field. This preliminary initiative was successful in the introduction of faculty and staff to the importance of fostering an inclusive academic environment and thereby developing a diverse workforce.
Global medical education is dominated by a Northern tilt. Global universities' faculty and students dominate research, scholarship and teaching about what is termed global education. This tilt has been fixed in global biomedical education with some acknowledgement from the Global South of the comparative benefits of global exchange. Student exchange is predominantly North to South. Students from the Global South are less likely to visit the North on global medical education visits. Global indigenous and traditional ways of knowing rooted may be suppressed, hidden or misappropriated and repackaged for consumption in the Global South with Global North ways of knowing as a reference point. A global history of colonization has shaped this trend influencing postcolonial theorists and decolonial activists to question the legitimacy and depose the influence of dominant Global North ideas. This is evident in how communication skills, reflective practice and narratives are presented and taught. Global North students must be introduced to Global South ways of knowing before visiting the Global South from a position of critical consciousness. Emancipatory education is best led by transformative Global North-South dialogue.
Introduction: Academic medicine has long faced the challenge of addressing health inequities, reflecting on how these contribute to structural racism, and perpetuating negative social determinants of health. Most recently, we have constructed opportunities for dialogues about racism, discrimination, and microaggressions (RDM). As such, we created a professional development program that encouraged participants to (1) openly discuss RDM and the impact they have in academia, (2) learn about tools to address and respond to RDM, and (3) move towards the creation of inclusive environments. The target audience included institutional leaders, faculty, trainees, professional staff, and health care teams. Methods: We sought to meet workshop goals by integrating anti-racist dramaturgical teaching, introducing concepts knowledge, and practicing communication tools. To assess learning and evaluate our workshops, participants completed a pre- and postsurvey. Results: Results showed that 30 participants were more comfortable with discussing issues related to race/ethnicity, gender identity/expression, sexual orientation, and spirituality after participating in the workshops. Prior to the two workshops, the percentage of learners who felt confident initiating conversations ranged from 29% to 54%. After the workshops, the percentage of learners who felt confident ranged from 58% to 92%. The greatest increase, 100%, was observed in the levels of confidence in initiating conversations related to race/ethnicity. Discussion: Despite medical education's commitment to cultural competence and institutional mission statements that value diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice, professional development opportunities are limited. Participants strongly agreed their participation in such a workshop was relevant and important to their professional work.
Critical examination of "health disparities" is gaining consideration in medical schools across the United States, often as elective curricula that supplement required education. However, there is disconnect between discussions of race and disparities in these curricula and in core science courses. Specifically, required preclinical science lecturers often operationalize race as a biological concept, framing racialized disparities as inherent in bodies. A three- and five-month sampling of lecture slides at the authors' medical school demonstrated that race was almost always presented as a biological risk factor.This presentation of race as an essential component of epidemiology, risk, diagnosis, and treatment without social context is problematic, as a broad body of literature supports that race is not a robust biological category. The authors opine that current preclinical medical curricula inaccurately employ race as a definitive medical category without context, which may perpetuate misunderstanding of race as a bioscientific datum, increase bias among student-doctors, and ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes.At the authors' institution, students approached the medical school administration with a letter addressing the current use of race, urging reform. The administration was receptive to proposals for further analysis of race in medical education and created a taskforce to examine curricular reform. Curricular changes were made as part of the construction of a longitudinal race-in-medicine curriculum. The authors seek to use their initiatives and this article to spark critical discussion on how to use teaching of race to work against racial inequality in health care.
van Ryn, M., et al. (2015). "Medical School Experiences Associated with Change in Implicit Racial Bias Among 3547 Students: A Medical Student CHANGES Study Report." Journal of General Internal Medicine 30(12): 1748-1756.
BACKGROUND: Physician implicit (unconscious, automatic) bias has been shown to contribute to racial disparities in medical care. The impact of medical education on implicit racial bias is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between change in student implicit racial bias towards African Americans and student reports on their experiences with 1) formal curricula related to disparities in health and health care, cultural competence, and/or minority health; 2) informal curricula including racial climate and role model behavior; and 3) the amount and favorability of interracial contact during school. DESIGN: Prospective observational study involving Web-based questionnaires administered during first (2010) and last (2014) semesters of medical school. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3547 students from a stratified random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): Change in implicit racial attitudes as assessed by the Black-White Implicit Association Test administered during the first semester and again during the last semester of medical school. KEY RESULTS: In multivariable modeling, having completed the Black-White Implicit Association Test during medical school remained a statistically significant predictor of decreased implicit racial bias (-5.34, p = 0.001: mixed effects regression with random intercept across schools). Students' self-assessed skills regarding providing care to African American patients had a borderline association with decreased implicit racial bias (-2.18, p = 0.056). Having heard negative comments from attending physicians or residents about African American patients (3.17, p = 0.026) and having had unfavorable vs. very favorable contact with African American physicians (18.79, p = 0.003) were statistically significant predictors of increased implicit racial bias. CONCLUSIONS: Medical school experiences in all three domains were independently associated with change in student implicit racial attitudes. These findings are notable given that even small differences in implicit racial attitudes have been shown to affect behavior and that implicit attitudes are developed over a long period of repeated exposure and are difficult to change.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Education of health care clinicians on racial and ethnic disparities has primarily focused on emphasizing statistics and cultural competency, with minimal attention to racism. Learning about racism and unconscious processes provides skills that reduce bias when interacting with minority patients. This paper describes the responses to a relationship-based workshop and toolkit highlighting issues that medical educators should address when teaching about racism in the context of pernicious health disparities. METHODS: A multiracial, interdisciplinary team identified essential elements of teaching about racism. A 1.5-hour faculty development workshop consisted of a didactic presentation, a 3-minute video vignette depicting racial and gender microaggression within a hospital setting, small group discussion, large group debrief, and presentation of a toolkit. RESULTS: One hundred twenty diverse participants attended the workshop at the 2016 Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Annual Spring Conference. Qualitative information from small group facilitators and large group discussions identified some participants' emotional reactions to the video including dismay, anger, fear, and shame. A pre/postsurvey (N=72) revealed significant changes in attitude and knowledge regarding issues of racism and in participants' personal commitment to address them. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that this workshop changed knowledge and attitudes about racism and health inequities. Findings also suggest this workshop improved confidence in teaching learners to reduce racism in patient care. The authors recommend that curricula continue to be developed and disseminated nationally to equip faculty with the skills and teaching resources to effectively incorporate the discussion of racism into the education of health professionals.
Literature on racism, anti-racism, whiteness, nursing education and nurse educators was reviewed and analysed for the development of race consciousness and application of anti-racist pedagogy. The literature describes an oppressive educational climate for non-white identifying people, a curriculum that does not attend to the social construction of difference, and a nursing culture that is not consciously situated in a broader sociopolitical context. A particular focus on studies of nurse educators demonstrates a stark need for personal and professional development towards effectively delivering anti-racist pedagogy and a deconstruction of white normativity and dominance amongst white faculty. The protection and reproduction of white privilege is identified through the scholarship itself through a lack of racial analysis, an externalization of the root of oppression and non-specific study measures and outcomes. The persistence and pervasiveness of white dominance in nursing and the lack of anti-racist competence in white educators, particularly, merits a shift in anti-racist efforts away from short-term skill acquisition initiatives towards the deconstruction of socialized white supremacy and enactments of white privilege in nurse educators themselves.
Although nursing has a unique contribution to advancing social justice in health care practices and education, and although social justice has been claimed as a core value of nursing, there is little guidance regarding how to enact social justice in nursing practice and education. In this paper, we propose a critical antidiscriminatory pedagogy (CADP) for nursing as a promising path in this direction. We argue that because discrimination is inherent to the production and maintenance of inequities and injustices, adopting a CADP offers opportunities for students and practicing nurses to develop their capacity to counteract racism and other forms of individual and systemic discrimination in health care, and thus promote social justice. The CADP we propose has the following features: it is grounded in a critical intersectional perspective of discrimination, it aims at fostering transformative learning, and it involves a praxis-oriented critical consciousness. A CADP challenges the liberal individualist paradigm that dominates much of western-based health care, and the culturalist and racializing processes prevalent in nursing education. It also situates nursing practice as responsive to health inequities. Thus, a CADP is a promising way to translate social justice into nursing practice and education through transformative learning.
Creating a socially conscious educational environment is an imperative if health care practitioners are to have a significant impact on health inequities. The effects of practitioner bias, prejudice, and discrimination on health and health outcomes have been well documented in the literature. Individuals being trained to provide health care will be entering into an increasingly diverse world and must be equipped with the appropriate knowledge and skills in order to meet the needs of those seeking their care. Cultural competency training in medical education has evolved over the past 15 years since the Institute of Medicine's 2002 report, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. As research on the effectiveness of this training has emerged, several authors have called for the integration of antiracism training into the cultural competency curriculum, but few have found effective ways of doing so. This article describes the approach of one midwifery program in order to inform clinical education programs across the spectrum of health care practitioners.
PURPOSE: Some nursing scholars assert that race and racism require a more explicit focus in cultural nursing education if the profession is to positively impact health care disparities. This study explored what White BSN cultural educators think, believe, and teach about race, racism, and antiracism. METHOD: Phenomenological methods were used to analyze interview data from 10 White BSN faculty members who taught cultural content. FINDINGS: Four themes were identified: living and learning in White spaces, a personal journey toward antiracism, values transformed through personal relationship, and race at the margins. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Whiteness obscured the participants' understanding and teaching of race; White nursing faculty were not well prepared to teach about race and racism; learning about these topics occurs best over time and through personal relationships. IMPLICATIONS: Faculty development regarding race and racism is needed to facilitate student, curricular, and institutional change.
The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police (mis)conduct. What is glaringly absent is a public health perspective in response to these events. We aim to fill this gap and expand the current dialogue beyond these isolated incidents to a broader discussion of racism in America and how it affects the health and well-being of people of color. Our goal is not only to reiterate how salient structural racism is in our society, but how critical antiracist work is to the core goals and values of public health.
Macintyre, T., et al. (2020). "Transgressing Boundaries between Community Learning and Higher Education: Levers and Barriers." Sustainability 12(7). [Not strictly Public Health, but Community Learning seemed relevant]
In times of global systemic dysfunction, there is an increasing need to bridge higher education with community-based learning environments so as to generate locally relevant responses towards sustainability challenges. This can be achieved by creating and supporting so-called learning ecologies that blend informal community-based forms of learning with more formal learning found in higher education environments. The objective of this paper is to explore the levers and barriers for connecting the above forms of learning through the theory and practice of an educational approach that fully engages the heart (feelings), head (thinking), and hands (doing). First, we present the development of an educational approach called Koru, based on a methodology of transgressive action research. Second, we critically analyze how this approach was put into practice through a community-learning course on responsible tourism held in Colombia. Results show that ICT, relations to place, and intercultural communication acted as levers toward bridging forms of learning between participants, but addressing underlying power structures between participants need more attention for educational boundaries to be genuinely transgressed.
Taboada, A. (2011). "Privilege, power, and public health programs: a student perspective on deconstructing institutional racism in community service learning." Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 17(4): 376-380.
The Association of Schools of Public Health has identified "diversity and culture" as 1 of 7 crosscutting competencies that public health students are expected to achieve. This competency is traditionally incorporated into the curriculum through a community service-learning (CSL) component that aims to expose students to racial/ethnic health disparities. However, this model of CSL is problematic because although students are directly engaging with community members, it does not ensure long-term sustainable changes or benefits for the host community. Moreover, academic institutions have developed significant critiques of traditional CSL models where white middle-class students engage with low-income clients and communities of color, potentially reinforcing Eurocentric power and privilege. As such, public health programs require a shift in both pedagogy and curricula that more directly addresses underlying institutional racism in health disparities. Consistent with the principles of public health, a social justice framework is imperative in teaching cultural competency and should facilitate discussion of racial injustice and privilege in the students' own lives. This brief presents an autobiographical personal narrative of my experiences with CSL as a racial/ethnic minority student in a California graduate school of public health. Although autoethnography is inherently limited, this brief highlights my observations of the limitations of the service-learning model to adequately educate students on the intersection of racism and health outcomes. In addition, the brief includes suggestions for creating inclusive curricula that critically examine issues of privilege, oppression, and power dynamics related to race/ethnicity.